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乳腺癌


病因、风险因素和症状

癌症是受损 DNA 造成的结果。受损的原因包括生物和环境因素。虽然不知道确切的病因,但是有几种风险因素被证实会增加患乳腺癌的风险。

风险因素:

  • 女性

  • 老年化

  • 某些基因突变

  • 个人或家庭乳腺癌病史

  • 致密乳腺组织

  • 12 岁前初潮

  • 55 岁后绝经

  • 胸部辐射治疗

  • 没有生育,或者 30 岁后才生育第一个孩子

  • 饮酒

  • 肥胖或超重

  • 不活动

  • 某些类型的激素避孕药物

  • 服用某些激素治疗药物

乳腺癌风险因素的完整列表可参见美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)的网站9
 

症状

多种体征和症状指示您可能患有乳腺癌。如果您有下列任何体征或症状,请尽快安排就医。

  • 乳房或腋窝有肿块或组织增厚
  • 乳房的大小或形状发生变化
  • 乳头流出脓状或血样液体
  • 乳头浅凹、发红或凹陷
  • 乳房或乳房周围的皮肤刺激过敏

 


参考文献:

  1. http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/default.htm (WebMD: Breast Cancer Health Center)
  2. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/home/ovc-20207913 (Mayo Clinic: Breast Cancer)
  3. http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/statistics (National Cancer Institute: Cancer Statistics) and http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html (National Cancer Institute: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Female Breast Cancer)
  4. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/ (World Health Organization: Cancer Fact Sheet)
  5. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000913.htm (MedlinePlus: Breast Cancer)
  6. http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp (National Cancer Institute: Breast Cancer—Health Professional Version)
  7. http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast (National Cancer Institute: Breast Cancer—Patient Version)
  8. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/index (American Cancer Society: Breast Cancer)
  9. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-risk-factors (American Cancer Society: Breast Cancer Risk Factors)
  10. http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/cancerscreeningguidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer (American Cancer Society: Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer)
  11. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerglossary/index (American Cancer Society: Cancer Glossary)
  12. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/staging (National Cancer Institute: Staging)
  13. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancerinmen/detailedguide/breast-cancer-in-men-key-statistics (American Cancer Society: Breast Cancer in Men Key Statistics)
  14. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007410.htm (MedlinePlus definition of general anesthesia)